Mort Walker (scripts, 1950–198?) |
Mort Walker (art, 1950–present), Brian, & Greg Walker (scripts, 198?–present)
|Current status / schedule||Running|
|Launch date||September 4, 1950|
|Syndicate(s)||King Features Syndicate|
Beetle Bailey (begun on September 4, 1950) is an American comic strip set in a fictional United States Army military post, created by cartoonist Mort Walker. It is among the oldest comic strips still being produced by the original creator. Over the years, Mort Walker has been assisted by (among others) Jerry Dumas, Bob Gustafson, Frank Johnson and Walker's sons Neal, Brian and Greg Walker. The latter is currently credited on the strip.
Beetle was originally a college student named Spider at Rockview University. The characters in that early strip were modeled after Walker's fraternity brothers at the University of Missouri. During the strip's first year, Beetle quit school and enlisted in the U.S. Army on 13 March 1951, where he has remained ever since.
Most of the humor in Beetle Bailey revolves around the inept characters stationed at Camp Swampy, (inspired by Camp Crowder, where Walker had once been stationed while in the Army). Private Bailey is a lazy sort who usually naps and avoids work, and thus is often the subject of verbal and physical chastising from his supervisor, Sergeant Snorkel. The characters never seem to see combat themselves, with the exception of mock battles and combat drills. In fact, they seem to be in their own version of stereotypical comic strip purgatory (initially basic training, they now appear to be stuck in time in a regular infantry division). The uniforms of Beetle Bailey are still the uniforms of the late 1940s to early 1970s Army, with green fatigues and baseball caps as the basic uniform, and the open jeep as the basic military vehicle. Sergeant First Class Snorkel wears a green Class A Army dress uniform with heavily wrinkled garrison cap; the officers wear M1 helmet liners painted with their insignia. While Beetle Bailey's unit is Company A, one running gag is that the characters are variously seen in different branches of the Army, such as artillery, armor, infantry, and paratroops.
Beetle is always seen with a hat or helmet covering his forehead and eyes. Even on leave, his "civvies" include a pork pie hat worn in the same style. He can only be seen without it once—in the original strip when he was still a college student. The strip was pulled and never ran in any newspaper. It has only been printed in various books on the strip's history. One daily strip had Sarge scare Beetle's hat off, but Beetle was wearing sunglasses.
One running gag has Sergeant Snorkel hanging helplessly to a small tree branch after having fallen off a cliff. While he is never shown falling off, or even walking close to the edge of a cliff, he always seems to hold on to that same branch, yelling for help. This gag may have spawned the segment of the children's show Between the Lions featuring a person named Cliff Hanger, who, like Sergeant Snorkel, is hanging from a cliff in each feature.
Cast of characters
Beetle Bailey is unusual in having one of the largest and most varied permanent casts of any comic strip. While many of the older characters are rarely seen, almost none have been completely retired.
- Private Beetle Bailey — the main character and strip's namesake; a feckless, shirking, perpetual goof-off and straggler known for his chronic laziness and generally insubordinate attitude. Slack, hapless, lanky and freckled, Beetle's eyes are always concealed, whether by headgear or, in the rare instance of not wearing any, by his hair. In early strips, it was revealed that he is the brother of Lois Flagston (from the "Hi and Lois" cartoon, which Mort Walker also drew for).
- Sergeant 1st Class Orville P. Snorkel — Beetle's nemesis; introduced in 1951. Sarge is known to frequently beat up Beetle for any excuse he can think of, leaving Beetle a shapeless pulp (one of the most iconic images in the strip). Sarge is too lovable to be a villain, however. Obese, snaggle-toothed and volatile, Sarge can be alternately short-tempered and sentimental. He and Beetle seem to have a mutual love/hate relationship; much of the time there's an implied truce between them. They share an uneasy alliance that sometimes borders on genuine (albeit unequal) friendship. He's from Pork Corners, Kansas.
- Private "Killer" Diller — the notorious ladies' man, and Beetle's frequent crony—introduced in 1951.
- Otto — Sgt. Snorkel's anthropomorphic, look-alike bulldog whom Sarge dresses up the same as himself, in an army uniform. Otto is fiercely protective of Sarge, and seems to have a particular antipathy towards Beetle. Originally he was a regular dog who walked on all fours, but Mort Walker finally decided to make him more human-like. As Walker put it, "I guess he's funnier that way." As the Sarge is often found hanging on a branch protruding from a cliff face, so once was Otto.
- Cookie Jowls — the mess sergeant, who smokes cigarettes while preparing the mess hall's questionable menu (infamous for rubbery meatballs and tough-as-rawhide steaks). Except for the presence of cauliflower ears, a prominent heart tattoo, hairy shoulders and perpetual beard stubble, bears a striking resemblance to SFC Snorkel—and has also been known to occasionally beat up on Beetle. Like Sarge, he also loves food.
- Brigadier General Amos T. Halftrack — the inept, frustrated, semi-alcoholic commander of Camp Swampy; introduced in 1951. Loves to golf, much to his wife Martha's dismay. Occasionally engages in harassment of his secretary, Miss Buxley. He's 78 years old, from Kenner, Louisiana—though according to Capt. Scabbard he was born in China (April 28, 1971).
- Miss (Sheila) Buxley — Halftrack's beautiful, blonde, buxom civilian secretary—and occasional soldier's date (as well as a constant distraction for Halftrack). She used to live in Amarillo, Texas. She appears in every Wednesday strip, with the exception of November 4, 2009; February 16, 2011; March 2, 2011; and April 6, 2011; why on Wednesdays is unknown. (However, a possible prototype for Miss Buxley, a very similar-looking "new stenographer" for General Halftrack, appeared on January 22, 1970—a Thursday.) Miss Buxley has an apparent interest in Beetle, and is constantly pursued by Killer.
- Private Blips — Halftrack's competent, jaded, feministic, not-at-all-buxom secretary ("blips" are small points of light on a radar screen). Resents Halftrack's constant ogling of Miss Buxley.
- Lieutenant Sonny Fuzz — very young (with noticeably pointy eyebrows and very little facial hair), overly earnest, anal-retentive and "by the book", and highly susceptible to squeaky furniture. The apple-polishing Fuzz is always trying to impress uninterested superiors (especially Halftrack), and "rub it in the noses" of his subordinates. He was introduced in 1956. Mort Walker said he modeled the character and personality of Lt. Fuzz on himself, having taken himself too seriously after completing Officer Training.
- Lieutenant Jackson Flap — the strip's first black character, often touchy and suspicious—but effortlessly cool, introduced in 1970. Originally wore an afro hairstyle.
- Private Zero — the buck-toothed, naïve farm boy who takes commands literally, and misunderstands practically everything. Despite all that, Zero is a surprisingly knowledgeable coin collector. In one strip, an anonymous soldier pulls a prank on Zero by selling him a penny for about ten dollars. Zero has the last laugh by revealing to the reader that it is, in fact, a rare coin worth many times that amount.
- Private Plato — the Camp's resident intellectual (as Tom Lehrer might say, "brings a book to every meal"); bespectacled, given to scrawling long-winded, analytical, often philosophical graffiti. Named after Plato but reportedly based on Walker's pal, fellow cartoonist Dik Browne. Plato is the only character other than Beetle to evolve from the early "college" years of the strip.
- Chaplain Staneglass — "He's praying... he's looking at the food... he's praying again!" According to Mort Walker's Private Scrapbook, Walker based the chaplain on Irish actor Barry Fitzgerald's priest character, from Going My Way (1944).
- Martha Halftrack — the General's formidable, domineering wife. She's 70 yrs. old and is from Morganfield, KY. (She has been known to sneak dates without Amos knowing.)
- Bunny (originally "Buzz") Piper — Beetle's seldom-seen girlfriend.
- Private Rocky — Camp Swampy's long-haired, disgruntled social dissident; a former biker gang member and rebel-without-a-clue, introduced 1958.
- Private Cosmo — Camp Swampy's sunglass-wearing, resident "shady entrepreneur" and huckster. Loosely based on William Holden's Sefton character from Stalag 17; almost forgotten in the 1980s.
- Captain Sam Scabbard — hard-nosed, flat-top wearing officer, often as hard on Sarge as Sarge is on Beetle.
- Major Greenbrass — straight man and golf partner to Gen. Halftrack.
- Private Julius Plewer — fastidious fussbudget, who eventually became Halftrack's chauffeur.
- Corporal Yo — the strip's first Asian character, introduced in 1990.
- Dr. Bonkus — Camp Swampy's loopy staff psychiatrist, whose own sanity is questionable.
- Specialist Chip Gizmo — Camp Swampy's resident computer geek, was named by a write-in contest in 2002. The contest sponsored by Dell Computer Corp., received more than 84,000 entries. It raised more than $100,000 for the Fisher House Foundation, a non-profit organization that provides housing for families of patients at military and veterans hospitals.
- Sergeant 1st Class Louise Lugg — hopes to be Sarge's girlfriend, introduced in 1986. Lt. Flap wondered why Lugg was sent to the camp; Halftrack commented that she showed up after he called the Pentagon to request an overseas assignment—"I asked them to send me abroad."
- Bella — Sgt. Louise Lugg's female cat.
- Chigger Bailey — Beetle's younger brother (a chigger, like a beetle, is a kind of arthropod, and commonly mistaken for an insect).
- Colonel Cohen, CEO
- Major Burk, CFO
- General Snead, CIO
- Captain Finn, COO
- Canteen (early 1950s) — always eating.
- Snake Eyes (early 1950s) — the barracks gambler, replaced by Cosmo, Rocky, and others.
- Big Blush (early 1950s) — tall, innocent, and a great attraction to the girls; many of his characteristics incorporated into both Sarge and Zero.
- Fireball (early 1950s) — neophyte who always seems to be in the way; forerunner of both Zero and Lt. Fuzz.
- Bammy (early 1950s) — the southern patriot from Alabama who is still fighting the Civil war.
- Dawg (early 1950s) — the guy in every barracks who creates his own pollution.
- Ozone (late 1950s) — Zero's bigger, even more naïve friend.
- Moocher (early 1960s) — stingy and always borrowing things.
- Pop (1960s) — married private: gets yelled at by Sarge all day and goes home at night for more abuse from his wife.
- Sergeant Webbing — variously described as being from either B Company or D Company. He somewhat resembles Snorkel, except that he lacks the trademark wrinkles in Snorkel's garrison cap, and has wavy hair and thick eyebrows. He has pointy teeth. On at least two separate occasions, Webbing engaged Sgt. Snorkel in a cussing duel. He also attempted to one-up Snorkel in anthropomorphizing dogs, leading to Otto's first appearance in uniform, and was most recently seen (recognizably, but not mentioned by name) in 1983.
- Rolf (early 1980s) — civilian tennis instructor, very popular with the female cast (including both Mrs. Halftrack and Miss Buxley, much to the General's consternation). Originally introduced in response to complaints about the constant ogling of Miss Buxley by the male characters. First appearance was in the September 9, 1982 strip, and he disappeared completely by the mid 1980s.
The entire cast, except for Beetle, of the early strip was set at Rockview University (although both incarnations of the strip include a spectacled intellectual named Plato). Four characters from the original cast (Bitter Bill, Diamond Jim, Freshman, and Sweatsock) made at least one appearance, in the January 5th 1963 strip.
Extras, one-shots and walk-ons
- Mr. & Mrs. Bailey, unnamed parents of Beetle, Lois & Chigger.
- Chigger, Beetle's & Lois' younger brother.
- Mr. & Mrs. Piper, Bunny's parents.
- A camp doctor (Dr. Dormond Dingleberry) whose appearance is consistent, but who is apparently unnamed.
- An unnamed officers' club bartender, frequent intermediary between the Halftracks.
- An unnamed Secretary of Defence who has made numerous appearances.
- Lois Flagston (née Bailey), Beetle's sister; she and her husband are the title characters of the Hi and Lois comic strips.
- Hiram "Hi" Flagston, Beetle's brother-in-law and Lois's husband
- Chip, Dot, Ditto, and Trixie Flagston, Hi and Lois's children
- Popeye the Sailor once made an indirect appearance in the form of a Halloween mask worn by Zero.
Numerous one-shot characters have appeared over the years, mostly unnamed, including an inspector general who looks like Alfred E. Neuman, and various officers and civilians. Among the few to be given names is Julian, a nondescript chauffeur eventually replaced by Julius.
"For the most part, Walker's relationship with the real-life U.S. Army has been cordial. But not always. During the early 1950s, the strip was dropped from the Tokyo edition of Stars and Stripes because it allegedly encouraged disrespect for officers. The civilian press made a huge joke of that, and the ensuing publicity gave the young strip its first big boost in circulation." (Source: Don Markstein's Toonopedia)
As with most other American comic strips, Beetle Bailey has been censored from time to time. In 1962, the comic strip was censored because it showed a belly button, and in 2006, the description of Rocky's criminal past was replaced with a non-criminal past.
Sometimes Mort Walker censors the strips himself. This is done at the sketch stage, and those strips are never published in the USA. They "end up in a black box in the bottom drawer", according to Walker. These sketches are sometimes published in Scandinavia, however. In Norway, they've appeared in the Norwegian Beetle Bailey comic book – Billy, with the cover of the comic marked to show it contains censored strips. To offset any possible negative reaction, the publisher experimented with "scrambling" the strips in the mid-1990s. To see them, the reader had to view them through a "de-scrambling" plastic card. This was discontinued soon afterwards, and the strips today are printed without scrambling.
A TV version of the strip, consisting of 50 animated cartoon shorts produced by King Features Syndicate, was animated by Paramount Cartoon Studios in the USA and Artransa Film Studios in Sydney, Australia, and was first broadcast in 1963. The opening credits included the sound of a bugle reveille, followed by a theme song specifically composed for the cartoon:
- He's the military hero of the nation / Though he doesn't always follow regulation
- At the sound of reveille / He is here for you to see
- And we know you'll laugh at Private Beetle Bailey—
- (Beetle Bailey!)
- As the General, Colonel, Major and the Captain,
- The Lieutenant and the Sergeant and the Corporal,
- They will tell you with a shout / They would gladly live without
- A certain Private by the name of Beetle Bailey—
- (Beetle Bailey!)
Beetle was voiced by comic actor and director Howard Morris with Allen Melvin as the voice of Sarge. Other King Features properties, such as Snuffy Smith and Krazy Kat, also appeared in the syndicated series, under the collective title: Beetle Bailey and His Friends.
Beetle Bailey episodes
- Home Sweet Swampy (1962)
- Hero's Reward
- Psychological Testing
- Et Tu, Otto?
- A Tree Is a Tree Is a Tree
- Beetle's High Horps (1963)
- Labor Shortage
- Don't Fiddle with the Brass
- The Sergeant's Master
- The Bull of the Ball
- 60 - Count 'em - 60!
- Grab Your Socks
- The Blue Ribbon
- Go Yeast, Young Man
- We Love You Sergeant Snorkle
- Is This Drip Necessary?
- A Christmas Tale
- For Officers Only
- Bye-Bye Young Lovers (1964)
- A Pass Is a Pass Is a Pass
- Leap No More My Lady
- Tattoo-Tootsie Goodbye
- Welsh Rabbit
- Cosmo's Naught
- Camp Invisible
- "V" for Visitors
- Little Pooch Lost
- Halftrack's Navy
- Don't Give Up the Swamp
- Hoss Laffs
- The Red Carpet Treatment
- Lucky Beetle
- Sweet Sunday
- Operation Butler
- Bridge on the River "Y"
- The Secret Weapon
- The Diet
- The Heir
- Breaking the Leash
- The Spy
- The Jinx
- Courage Encourager
- Sgt. Snorkle's Longest Day
- Everything's Ducky
- The Play's the Thing
- Son of a Gun of a Gun
- Zero's Dizzy Double Date
- Dr. Jekyll and Beetle Bailey
- Over the years, Beetle Bailey characters have been licensed for dolls, T-shirts, salt and pepper shakers, toys, telephones, music boxes, handpuppets, coffee mugs, cookie jars, neckties, lunchboxes, paperback books, games, bobblehead nodders, banks, lapel pins and greeting cards, among other products. The Multiple Plastics Corporation manufactured a 1964 Camp Swampy playset, a tie-in with the cartoon TV show, with character figures accompanying the usual MPC toy GIs and military vehicles.
- In 2000, Dark Horse Comics issued 2 collectible figures of Beetle and Sarge as part of their line of Classic Comic Characters—statues #11 and 12, respectively. In honor of the strip's 50th anniversary, DHC also produced a boxed, PVC figure set of 7 Beetle Bailey characters; (Beetle, Sarge, Gen. Halftrack, Miss Buxley, Otto, Lt. Flap and Cookie.)
- BCI Eclipse has released 20 episodes of Beetle Bailey as part of Animated All Stars, a 2-DVD set (BCI 46952). Rhino Home Video also released a DVD containing 10 episodes, along with a couple of Hagar the Horrible and Betty Boop cartoons. In 2007, Beetle Bailey: The Complete Collection was released to DVD, containing all 50 shorts grouped randomly into 13 episodes, plus a previously un-aired 1989 TV special.
(All titles by Mort Walker. Published by Ace Tempo/Grosset & Dunlap, unless otherwise noted.)
- Beetle Bailey and Sarge (1958) Dell
- Beetle Bailey: A Strip Book (1966) Saalfield Books
- Beetle Bailey: Potato Fancakes! (1967) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: In the Soup (1967) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Dog-Gone (1967) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Not Reverse! (1967) Tor
- Beetle Bailey (No. 1) (1968)
- Fall Out Laughing, Beetle Bailey (No. 2) (1969)
- At Ease, Beetle Bailey (No. 3) (1970)
- I Don't Want to Be Out Here Any More Than You Do, Beetle Bailey (No. 4) (1970)
- What Is It Now, Beetle Bailey (No. 5) (1971)
- Beetle Bailey on Parade (No. 6) (1972)
- We're All in the Same Boat, Beetle Bailey (No. 7) (1973)
- I'll Throw the Book at You, Beetle Bailey (No. 8) (1973) Jove
- Shape Up or Ship Out, Beetle Bailey (No. 9) (1974)
- Backstage at the Strips (1975) Mason/Charter
- Take Ten, Beetle Bailey (No. 10) (1975)
- I've Got You on My List, Beetle Bailey (No. 11) (1975)
- Take a Walk, Beetle Bailey (No. 12) (1976)
- I Thought You Had the Compass, Beetle Bailey (No. 13) (1976)
- Is That All, Beetle Bailey (No. 14) (1976)
- About Face, Beetle Bailey (No. 15) (1976)
- I'll Flip You for It, Beetle Bailey (No. 16) (1977)
- I Just Want to Talk to You, Beetle Bailey (No. 17) (1977)
- Lookin' Good, Beetle Bailey (No. 18) (1977)
- I Don't Want to Hear About it, Beetle Bailey (1977)
- Give Us a Smile, Beetle Bailey (No. 19) (1979)
- Peace, Beetle Bailey (No. 20) (1979)
- Don't Make Me Laugh, Beetle Bailey (No. 21) (1979)
- Up, Up and Away, Beetle Bailey (1980)
- You're Out of Hup, Beetle Bailey (No. 22) (1980)
- Who's in Charge Here, Beetle Bailey (No. 23) (1980)
- Is This Another Complaint, Beetle Bailey (No. 24) (1981) Charter
- Would It Help to Say I'm Sorry, Beetle Bailey (No. 25) (1981)
- Beetle Bailey: You Crack Me Up (1981) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Flying High (1981) Tor
- Otto (1982)
- Miss Buxley: Sexism in Beetle Bailey? (1982) Comicana
- Beetle Bailey: Hey There! (1982) Tor
- Beetle Bailey Joke Book (1982) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: The Rough Riders (1982) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: General Alert (1982) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Rise and Shine (1983) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Double Trouble (1983) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Take Ten (1984) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Surprise Package (1984)
- Beetle Bailey: Tough Luck (1984)
- Beetle Bailey: Operation Good Times (No. 26) (1984)
- You'll Get a Bang Out of This, Beetle Bailey (No. 27) (1984) Charter
- Beetle Bailey in "Friends" (1984) Dargaud
- Beetle Bailey in Too Many Sergeants (1984) Dargaud
- Beetle Bailey in The System (1984) Dargaud
- The Best of Beetle Bailey (1984, 2005) HRW
- The Best of Beetle Bailey: A Thirty-Three Year Treasury (1984, 2007) Comicana
- Beetle Bailey: Thin Air (1985) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Strategic Withdrawal (1985) Tor
- You're All Washed Up, Beetle Bailey (No. 28) (1985) Charter
- Beetle Bailey: Hard Knocks (No. 29) (1985)
- Beetle Bailey: Three's a Crowd (1986) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Revenge (1986) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Uncle Sam Wants You (1986) Tor
- Big Hits from Beetle Bailey (No. 30) (1986)
- Did You Fix the Brakes, Beetle Bailey (No. 31) (1986) Jove
- Beetle Bailey: Life's a Beach! (1987) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Undercover Operation (1987)
- What's the Joke, Beetle Bailey (No. 32) (1987)
- Let's Change Places, Beetle Bailey (No. 33) (1987)
- Beetle Bailey: That Sinking Feeling (1988) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Behind the Eight Ball Again! (No. 34) (1988) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Quit Hangin'Around! (No. 35) (1988) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Welcome to Camp Swampy! (1989)
- Beetle Bailey: Separate Checks (1989) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Quit Clowning Around (1989) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Wiped Out (No. 36) (1989) Jove
- Beetle Bailey: World's Laziest Private (No. 37) (1989)
- Beetle Bailey: Celebration (1989) Andrews McMeel
- Beetle Bailey: Beetle Mania! (1990) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: A Flying Beetle? (1990) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Advanced Planning (1990)
- Beetle Bailey: Sarge Is a Dope! (1990) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Basket Case (No. 38) (1990) Jove
- Beetle Bailey: New Outfit! (No. 39) (1990) Jove
- Beetle Bailey: Another Request for Furlough (No. 40) (1990) Jove
- Beetle Bailey: Table Service (No. 41) (1991) Jove
- Beetle Bailey: Let's Grab a Bite! (No. 42) (1991) Tor
- Beetle Bailey: Wha' Happen? (No. 43) (1991) Jove
- Beetle Bailey: Beetle Bugged (No. 44) (1992) Jove
- Beetle Bailey: Corporal Punishment (No. 45) (1992) Jove
- Beetle Bailey: Keep Peeling (No. 46) (1992) Jove
- Beetle Bailey: Tattle "Tail" (No. 47) (1992) Jove
- Beetle Bailey: Dream Team (No. 48) (1993) Jove
- Beetle Bailey: Camp Swampy Strikes Again! (No. 49) (1993) Jove
- Beetle Bailey: Still Lazy After All These Years (1999) NBM
- 50 Years of Beetle Bailey (2000) NBM
- Beetle Bailey Book and Figure Set: Sarge (2001) Dark Horse Comics
- Beetle Bailey Book and Figure Set: Beetle (2001) Dark Horse Comics
- Beetle Bailey Book and Figure Set: Miss Buxley (2001) Dark Horse Comics
- Beetle Bailey Book and Figure Set: General Halftrack (2001) Dark Horse Comics
- Mort Walker's Private Scrapbook (2001) Andrews McMeel
- Beetle Bailey, The First Years: 1950-1952 (2008) Checker
- Beetle Bailey, Daily and Sunday Strips: 1965 (2010) Titan
Beyond the strip
- Beetle Bailey also successfully appeared in comic books, from 1953–1980. The first series was published by Dell Comics, then Gold Key Comics, King Comics and Charlton Comics. Harvey Comics ran a much later second series, from 1992–1994.
- The comic strip Hi and Lois, co-created by Mort Walker and Dik Browne, is a spin-off from Beetle Bailey. (Beetle's sister is Lois Flagston.) Hi and Lois, also syndicated by King Features, debuted in 1954. Characters from one strip occasionally make guest appearances in the other.
- A Beetle Bailey parody in Mad Magazine from the late 1960s portrays Sarge and Captain Scabbard finally wresting the cap off Beetle's face—revealing the words "Get Out of Viet Nam!" tattooed on his forehead.
- Beetle and Sarge guest-starred in the 75th anniversary party of Blondie and Dagwood in 2005.
- A life size bronze sculpture of Beetle designed by Mort Walker with his son Neal assisting in the sculpting was unveiled at Walker's alma mater the University of Missouri on October 23, 1992.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Colton, David (May 26, 2010). "'Beetle Bailey' marches on, with artist Mort Walker leading". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/life/comics/2010-05-27-Beetle27_ST_N.htm. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- ↑ Walker, Mort (2008). Thorsjö, Alf. ed. Beetle Bailey 1950–1952. Egmont Kärnan AB/Checker Book Publishing Group. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-933160-71-9. OCLC 191244495.
- ↑ Walker, Mort. Beetle Bailey. Houston Chronicle. 2008-04-02. King Features Syndicate. 
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Champion Ed. The Bat Segundo Show Interview. 2008-05-21
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 "Here’s Chip Gizmo". Government Computer News. http://www.gcn.com/print/21_17/19173-1.html?topic=coop_telework. Retrieved 2007-11-28.
- ↑ February 17, 1957 Sunday strip, reprinted in Walker, The Best of Beetle Bailey, February 10, 1963 Sunday strip, reprinted in Walker, At Ease, Beetle Bailey (New York: Grosset & Dunlap/Tempo, 1970).
- ↑ June 26, 1958 and December 19, 1983 strips, reproduced in Walker, The Best of Beetle Bailey.
- ↑ Various strips reproduced in ibid.
- ↑ Quotations and documentation of characters from: Mort Walker, The Best of Beetle Bailey (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1984)
- ↑ Walker, Mort (2008). Alf Thorsjö. ed (in Norwegian). Billy. Den komplette samlingen striper og søndagssider. 1963-1964 (1 ed.). Egmont Serieforlaget. pp. 12. ISBN 987-82-429-3693-6.
- ↑ March 27, 1967 strip, reprinted in Walker, I Don't Want to be Out Here Any More Than You Do, Beetle Bailey (New York: Grosset & Dunlap/Tempo, 1970). ISBN 0-448-12256-1
- ↑ July 5, 1964 Sunday strip, reprinted in Walker, At Ease, Beetle Bailey (New York: Grosset & Dunlap/Tempo, 1970).ISBN 0-448-12255-3
- ↑ Beetle Bailey: The Complete Collection at AllMovie
- ↑ http://www.kingfeatures.com/features/comics/hi_lois/about.htm, Retrieved on 2009-12-09.
- ↑ WELCOME BACK, BEETLE BAILEY, Retrieved on 2010-10-16.